Baptidzo – A More Precise Definition

“The position of the book Baptidzo is that the word Baptidzo is not an act but a changed condition, state, result or an effect accomplished brought about by any one of several possible acts.” Let’s flesh that out some. To be more precise in our definition, we will define Baptidzo in greater detail, and with far more words, as:


a) a thorough change of condition, a new state, a result, or an effect accomplished,

b) by being enveloped or mersed within a fluid,

c) without any limitation of time. This is the primary meaning of Baptidzo.

In other words, if a person were enveloped with water for an unlimited amount of time, that person would undergo a thorough change of condition, that is, that person would pass from life to death. As a result, the Greeks commonly used Baptidzo to refer to a drowning.


a) a thorough change of condition, a new state, a result or an effect accomplished

b) without envelopment or mersion within a fluid, but instead

c) by any power or influence competent to control and to assimilate the baptized object to its own characteristics.

That particular change of condition would be dependent upon and indicated by an adjunct in the sentence, that is, additional words of explanation (Adjunct. 1: Something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it. 2 a: A word or word group that qualifies or completes the meaning of another word or other words and is not itself a main structural element in its sentence, b: an adverb or adverbial attached to the verb of a clause especially to express a relation of time, place, frequency, degree, or manner; Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary). This is the secondary meaning of Baptidzo.

In other words, if it were said that a person was baptized by tragedy into grief, we would understand that the person had come under the power of a tragedy that possessed the power to thoroughly change the person from a state of peace and contentment into a state of grief by its power to control and to assimilate the person into the calamity. Of course, no liquid was present or needed to effect the change. The adjunct or additional word of explanation in this scenario is the word tragedy. This usage is also very common in Classic Greek.


a) a thorough change of condition,

b) without envelopment or mersion within a fluid

c) by any power or influence competent to control and to assimilate the baptized object to its own characteristics

d) indicated by the absolute use of Baptidzo, this means Baptidzo is used without any adjunct in the sentence at all.

The difference in the secondary meaning of numbers One and Two is only found in point d). This is the result of adjunct words, which were long and frequently used, now dropped yet supplied mentally by the reader. It is the familiarity of the words that allow them to be dropped yet fully understood by the reader. In grammar this is called an ellipsis (Ellipsis: “The omissions of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically complete.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary). “The doctrine of ellipsis is that which is the most essential requisite in any transaction may be omitted, on the ground that it cannot be missed, and therefore will not fail to be supplied” (Dale, James W., Christic Baptism and Patristic Baptism, (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 1874, 1995), 217). This is still the secondary use of this word, but one in which little contextual material is given, but simply assumed by those intimately familiar with the subject.

For instance, it could be said that “a priest, for the purpose of ceremonial purification, baptized a person.” In time, after much common use, the phrase or adjunct “for the purpose of ceremonial purification” would be dropped from the sentence. But the audience would just as clearly understand what had happened if it were reported that “the priest baptized a person” (for the purpose of ceremonial purification) without these last words being actually in the sentence.

Words typically have several meanings, as any dictionary will quickly demonstrate. These definitions here do not exhaust the many facets of the word Baptidzo but they do provide us with the most obvious and most useful meanings of the word.


Notice two elements common in these definitions: 1) there is no mode inherent in the definitions. Immersion, sprinkling, pouring and a great variety of other methods illustrate the possible modes of baptism found in Greek literature. Indicators, other than the actual word Baptidzo, determine the mode of the specific baptism (if it is mentioned at all), for inherent in this word there is no mode suggested. 2) The one recurring element of these definitions is “a thorough change of condition, a result, a new state, or an effect accomplished.” This tends to be the one universal feature of Baptidzo; often, if not generally, it is virtually the very essence of its meaning. However, the mode of producing this change of condition is never a part of the definition.

As an aside, notice the Greek suffix idzo found in Baptidzo. idzo introduces a causative notion in a Greek word. The meaning here is that Baptidzo causes either 1) an envelopment or 2) a thorough change of condition.

Therefore, the following points are essential if one is to understand the meaning of the word Baptidzo. The significance of this word:

1)… is in no way controlled or dependent upon by any particular form, act or mode.

2)… is often (but not always) dependent upon and controlled by the idea of envelopment within some element.

3)… is fundamentally connected with a continuance within this element for an indefinite period of time,

4) this results in a change of condition, state or result in the baptized object.

Amen – One Definition

This word or phrase, “amen” or “Amen”, is generally an expression of agreement, ratification, and confirmation utilized during spiritual worship and/or religious services or ceremonies conducted by Greek, Jewish, Nordic, Gnostic, Christian, Muslim, Ancient Egyptian, and other spiritual leaders as well as having been introduced into spells of “Anathema” (i.e., originally meaning an “offering to a god” during the time of the Ancient Greeks but later in history this word evolved into meaning “accursed, denounced, exiled”, etc.). Note that all spells, spellwork, or spell casting are not performed for negative or evil purposes let alone intent or results; spells are also cast for purposes of spiritual benefaction via the elementals of Mother Nature, namely–Earth, Air, Fire, Water, and Aether (i.e., a spirit entity or spiritual energy) for positive outcomes.

This word derives from an etymological, Semitic (Hebrew) root word meaning “fixed” or “sure” with many different pantheistic (i.e., the worship or divination of all goddesses and gods along all lines of creeds) scriptural references. Another etymological note, regarding the word “Semitic”, and according to the Merriam-Webster definition:

“…of, relating to, or constituting a subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic language family that includes Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, and Amharic….”

To continue, the word, “Amen”, is generally capitalized in many circles. “Amen” is also considered to be a form interjection-spoken and grammatically. “Amen” is also a word that is sung (or found in secular music such as in a hymn) and used as a form of salutation. “Amen” has been expressed by many people, in the United States during the 1960’s and 1970’s, as a form of agreement such as “Amen brother or Amen sister” and similar to the expression “Right On!” which is just as spiritual in many communities, cultural and non-secular circles. The Greek version of the Old Testament (or “diatheke”) often scripturally translates “Amen” as meaning “so be it” which is quite similar in connotation to the phrase, “So mote it be”, often found in many metaphysical spells and rituals of Witchcraft and Neo-Pagan Wicca. The word “mote” derives from Middle English and from the Old English word “mÅ

Sound – A Short View of Definition and Behavior

Sound is a mechanical vibration of a medium in the hearing range.

A medium can be practically anything: a gas, a liquid or a hard material. Most commonly we perceive sound propagation in the air, where it travels with the speed of 343 m/s at the room temperature (20°C). The speed varies with temperature, but in the human habitat’s thermal range, that’s not a big variation (a couple of percent).

Some aircraft can reach the speed which is higher than the speed of sound (343 m/s= 1,235 km/h), also called the supersonic speed. Some other phenomena in the nature can reach that speed, such as meteorites entering the Earth’s atmosphere, There are also scientific speculations about the fact that some dinosaurs were able to move their tail with the ultrasonic speed, generating intimidating sounds.

The speed of sound is different in different media: for example, in water, this parameter is 1,484 m/s, while for iron it is 5,120 m/s, again, both at the room temperature.

Basic parameters

The basic shape of a pure uniform oscillation is a sine wave. This is what we use as a basic signal shape in sound, too, especially in electronics. This is the shape that we use for most measurements to test the behaviour of sound equipment.

This signal is defined by two parameters:

  • amplitude (A), which is directly connected with the loudness, therefore how loud or quiet the sound is, and
  • frequency (f), which determines the pitch of the sound – it tells us how many times per second a sound vibrates.

The signal makes its full turn when it equally passes positive and negative half-period creating a full cycle.

The time needed for this signal to terminate a full cycle is called a period (t0) or wavelength and it is measured in seconds. Frequency determines how many periods are completed in one second. The unit for frequency is 1/s or, more commonly, Hertz (Hz).

For example: if a signal oscillates with a hundred periods in a second, that’s 100 Hz.

From the definition “sound is a mechanical vibration of a medium in the hearing range”, we have already covered a part of a medium, but “what is the hearing range”?

The hearing range is the range between the lowest and the highest audible frequency. For a human, this is between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (20,000 Hz). Different animal species have different hearing ranges. For example, a mouse can hear from 1 kHz to 100 kHz and a chicken from 125 Hz to 2 kHz.

Now we have covered the whole definition of sound: we know what a medium is and how the speed of sound behaves in it, and we know what the hearing range is.


Previously we have said that a sound/signal is defined with two parameters: frequency and amplitude. As there is a definition for the hearing range in frequency, there are also limits in amplitude: what is the quietest sound we can hear and what is the loudest sound we can bear?

The amplitude range for a human hearing is defined between 0 and 120 dB, where 0 dB is the “loudness” of breathing, and 120 dB is a threshold of pain.

dB is not really a unit, but a logarithmic way to define a ratio between a reference signal and a measured signal.

0 dB means that the ratio between a reference and a measured signal is 1:1, while 120 dB is 1:1,000,000, therefore we can’t bear the sound that is a million times louder than our breathing. Another interesting ratio is 6 dB (1:2).

Just to give you a real life example of what dB means as a noise:

  • 0 dB – minimal perceivable sound
  • 30 dB – whisper
  • 60 dB – conversation
  • 98 db – hand drill
  • 115 dB – loud rock concert
  • 120 dB – pain threshold
  • 140 dB – jet engine
  • 180 dB – death of hearing tissue

In music notation, we use two extremes for the loudness definition: ppp (pianississimo, which equals to whispering) and fff (fortississimo, equal to yelling).

Technical Writing – Definition of Demographic

Definition of Demographic

Frequently, a client will specify a target audience by talking about the customer profile. This is a way of talking about the demographics of the people in a consumer group. One purpose of a demographic is to find out what specific consumer segments exist in the overall population. Another is to have enough information about a typical member of a group to provide a kind of mental picture of an individual within the larger group. This information allows for the development of a marketing strategy and a marketing plan.

In ordinary use, a number of variables are taken into account when we talk about a group’s demographics. Commonly used variables include:

  • race
  • age
  • income
  • disabilities
  • type and number of designated products in the household
  • education level
  • housing status: own, rent, condo
  • employment status
  • geographic location
  • recreational preferences
  • buying habits

Each of these variables can be given more or less weight depending on the product or service involved. For example, a magazine publisher might consider a marketing campaign aimed at a demographic that includes single Asian men between the ages of twenty-five and twenty-eight employed in the aero-space industry living in Northwest US. This is potentially a large segment of the population.

On the other hand, if a company has a product that is expected to appeal only to Serbo-Croatian females between the ages of eighty-five and ninety who hold doctorates in Antarctic Economics and live with their parents, a demographic study might indicate that the potential market is too small for a major marketing initiative.

Let’s Get Picky

Every word has a specific meaning and that no two words ever mean exactly the same thing. And we still believe that’s true – except when it isn’t.

The word psychographic, technically, includes all the information in a demographic plus a lot more. A good marketing dictionary will define psychographics as a way of dividing consumers into groups based on attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, buying motives, lifestyle, and a number of other attributes.

Technically, demographics is a sub-set of psychographics that measures only age, income, and occupation. Practically, though, you’ll very seldom hear the word psychographics in a meeting because most people in marketing either don’t know or don’t care that there’s a difference. Demographics has become the industry shorthand that encompasses all of the elements of psychographics.

Koala Defined by Genus – Difference Definition and Negative Definition

Koalas belong to the class of mammals, hairy, warm-blooded vertebrates most of whom give live birth and nourish their young with milk produced by skin glands of females. The class of mammals has three subclasses: Prototheria, egg-laying mammals represented by platypus and echidna; Metatheria, pouched mammals represented by marsupials and their distant relatives that are known only by fossils; and Eutheria, placental mammals such as humans. Of these three subclasses, koalas are marsupials and belong to Metatheria. Marsupials are unique among mammals in their mode of reproduction: their gestation period is very brief, so the young is born underdeveloped and following birth stays for many weeks in the maternal pouch and continues development. Except for the North American opossum, marsupials are found only in Australia and South America.

Koalas are phalangers, a genus of marsupials whose members are small to average in size with all limbs having five digits with claws, except for clawless toes; phalangers are arboreal and feed on vegetation. Finally, koalas are the largest phalangers and the only ones with pouches that open in the rear. Medium-sized animals with dense fur and no tail, koalas have low metabolism and spend most of their waking time consuming their exclusive diet, leaves of eucalyptus trees. Koalas have certain location-dependent preferences in the species of eucalyptus, of which they normally have about five favorites; interestingly, koalas love mature leaves of mana eucalyptus but know to avoid its young leaves and shoots that contain dangerously high levels of hydrocyanic acid and can kill the animals feeding on them. Koalas get water they need from the leaves, so they rarely drink; in fact, “koala” is commonly said to mean “does not drink” in the native language of Australian aborigines. Slow-moving and defenseless, for a long time koalas have been ruthlessly killed both for entertainment and their beautiful soft fur, until Australia enacted laws to protect koalas and other countries, such as the United States, prohibited the import of koala furs.

Because of their bear-like appearance (plump, no tail, rounded ears, thick fur), koalas are often incorrectly called “koala bears”; even their scientific name, Phascolarctos cinereus, means “ash grey pouched bear.” But koalas are not bears; the two animal families belong to different mammal classes – as described above, koalas belong to the Metatheria, while bears are Eutherians. The two animals differ in many aspects, and to name a few we’ll briefly consider reproduction, diet, and habitat. Unlike koalas, bears are placental mammals, meaning that their young do not need a pouch to finish the gestational period. As for the eating habits, many bears are carnivorous, which is a far cry from vegan koalas. Finally, while koalas reside primarily in the southern hemisphere, most bears – with the exception of South American Andean Bear – live in the northern hemisphere.