5 Things I Learned From Ken Robinson

Education expert Sir Ken Robinson is more than a New York Times bestselling author. He is a dynamic public speaker and leader in the development in creativity and innovation. Now a professor emeritus of education at the University of Warwick in the UK, he has received honorary degrees from five different universities as well as numerous awards. Over the course of his prolific career he has been a strong advocate of creativity and arts in educational systems throughout the world.

After viewing Ken Robinson’s talk at the prestigious TED conference in 2006, I couldn’t help but marvel at his astute perceptions on the educational system of yesterday, today and tomorrow. What exactly did I take away from his speech? The following five points sum up how as Robinson puts it, “our schools are killing the creativity in our children”.

1. We Are All Innately Creative Beings:

The key to unlocking creativity, as Ken Robinson puts it, is to accept the fact that sometimes as thinkers and innovators, we will be wrong. Unfortunately, most adults are stifled by a fear of being wrong. This fear is instilled in us at a young age and follows us into adult life. Preschool children do not share this worry and therefore have no trouble tapping into their creativity. When asked a question, young children will eagerly volunteer a multitude of creative answers. It is not until they are repeatedly told they are wrong that they begin to be cautious about volunteering. Creative people accept failure as part of the innovative process. Thomas Edison tested his version of the electric bulb over 3000 times before getting it right, yet he didn’t see it as failure. When asked about it, he merely said that he didn’t fail 3000 times, but found 3000 “ways it didn’t work”. This is the kind of mentality it takes to succeed in innovation – and in life, for that matter.

2. Intelligence is Diverse, Dynamic and Distinct:

We know that each individual demonstrates their intelligence in uniquely different ways. A system that focuses on merely one path, one way of doing, undervalues those that don’t fit the mold. In his talk, Ken Robinson brought up the story of dancer, choreographer Gillian Lynne who, as a girl, struggled in the typical school system. She just couldn’t keep still. After discovering dance, she flourished and went on to have a fabulous career as a dancer and choreographer. Today’s teachers and doctors would have assessed her with ADHD and given her medication to calm down! Her talent would never have been recognized. How sad that we stigmatize other forms of intelligence that don’t measure up to the current norm. Too many talented children are falling through the cracks because their unique gifts don’t fit the mold in today’s education system. We need to widen the scope of how we teach our children so all of them realize their full potential!

3. We Are Educating for a Different Era:

As public education was developed to meet the needs of the industrial revolution, subjects that were the most useful for training the work force were prioritized. The majority of jobs during the industrial revolution did not require creative thinking. Still today, we have an educational system with a primary focus on math, sciences and standardized testing. Left-brain dominance is preferred. A system that tends to push creativity aside. Schools, more often than not, teach kids that there is only one answer to a question. When we are taught to believe there is only one answer, we see the world as binary – right and wrong. When we begin to see the world this way, if a teacher asks a question and students do not know the answer, they will not open their mouth. As a result, children tend to lose their willingness to try new things and come up with their own independent ideas. We should be encouraging the opposite. We need to change our education system to meet the demands of the current job market, where innovation is a prized commodity.

4. We Need to Adopt A New System If Our Children Are To Flourish:

As Ken Robinson explained, our educational system has, “mined our minds” for a commodity. We enacted this system for a purpose in the past, but it has become outmoded and needs to be revamped. The world of tomorrow with its ever-growing population, increased global instability and fragile environment, will need highly creative people. We need people who can predict emerging trends, propose solutions to new issues, and stay calm in a challenging, ever changing world. The system that is currently in place will only stifle the creativity and ingenuity of tomorrow’s leaders and innovators.

5. “Academic Inflation” and Global Competition:

More people than ever are getting degrees across the globe. In 30 years time, a Bachelor’s degree will be almost worthless. To have a career, you will need a masters or doctorate. Already we see college graduates returning home to live with mom and dad with no career prospects. So how do we ensure that our children stand out from the well-educated crowd? Inevitably, we have to rethink our definition of intelligence if our children are going to make it in this increasing competitive world. Only if we nurture their creativity will they stand a chance.

Transforming our educational system is not just desirable, but critical. Embracing all forms of intelligence will prepare us for an unpredictable, ever-changing future. Continuing on the same path, with an outdated system in place, will mean throwing away talent and undiscovered potential. Nurturing undiscovered potential and talent is one of my favourite things about working with young people. What a life-changing gift to give to another human being. I for one, am not prepared to let more and more kids fail in life because they don’t fit the mold… Are you?

Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:

Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization

To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education

In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership

In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization

As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories

The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania

During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education

In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania

The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE

According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education

The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education

The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960’s and early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education

The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania

The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector

Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).

9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts

Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as “the new managerial responsibilities”. These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.

10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership

10.1. Prospects

The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania

10.2. Challenges

Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.

11. Conclusion

There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A “free market” dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world’s population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

Instructivism Vs Constructivism

All students have been in instructivist classes where the instructor used lecture-based teaching. While many learners can learn in this environment, recent studies on how the brain learns suggest that a more effective method of teaching is constructivism. An explanation of both theories follows.

Instructivist Learning Theory

In the instructivist learning theory, knowledge exists independently of the learner, and is transferred to the student by the teacher. As a teacher-centered model, the instructivist view is exhibited by the dispensing of information to the student through the lecture format. This theory requires the student to passively accept information and knowledge as presented by the instructor. While this method has been the basis of education for centuries, it does have drawbacks, especially in the online class.

Constructivist Learning Theory

In the constructivist learning theory, the learner constructs new knowledge through a process of analyzing new information and comparing it to previous knowledge. Student-centered, rather than teacher-centered, the constructivist theory is best exemplified by instructors who provide guidance, rather than spoon feeding knowledge to the student in the lecture hall. The student is is control of whether or not he or she learns, not the instructor.

Constructivism helps students comprehend how they understand or know a topic. Interactions with a learning environment provide the stimulus for learning through cognitive conflict as learners continually compare new knowledge with old knowledge and make a determination concerning which is more valuable. Building a model, designing a chart, and completing a project are all examples constructivist learning activities.

Conclusion

Most K-12 teachers use instructivist methods. First year, traditional college students tend to prefer the passive learning style that instructivist methods engender. However, non-traditional, adult students are more proactive – possibly because these learners have discovered that they are in charge of their own learning. They tend to seek out learning opportunities needed to enhance performance in their jobs and hobbies. By incorporating constructivist activities, instructors and course developers can improve student learning.

Be Smart About Higher Education: A Six Step Assessment to Know Where You Are in Life

Where are you? Do you allow location access? Smart phones regularly pop-up this question in order to supply directions and relevant information to make the best choices available. The power of technology makes this happen in seconds, but it isn’t quite that easy in life.

In order to achieve anything significant in life or higher education, providing direction to the desired destination or goal comes only after identifying where the starting point is. Life is moving so fast for today’s student, the important things like taking the time to plan suffers at the expense of a hundred urgent things of little significance.

A planning problem occurs when self-deception creeps in making up a story that avoids getting to the core of the issue. If I stop smoking, I’ll gain weight (but actually, I get nervous and eat to calm down). I’m not good at names (because I don’t care to remember them). After starting college I’ll pick a major (because that’s hard work to figure it out beforehand).

Eliminating self-deception begins by describing things accurately. The brain works best when problems are clearly defined. Do not confuse this with negative self-talk that only leaves a broken spirit. Refuse to allow the “never good enough” and “who am I to think that… ” negative phrases to sabotage dreams.

An example of this is to think “I’m stupid” as opposed to “I did poorly on one test.” One is an opinion and derogatory while the other is specific and something the brain can work on a plan to make better. Words are powerful, especially self-talk that is continually bouncing around in the mind. Make it honest and positive!

Following is a Where Are You self-assessment with a P-E-R-M-S-F acrostic:

  • The P stands for Physical – weight, blood pressure, health, fitness (how many push-ups, sit-ups, etc.), nutrition, etc.
  • The E is for Emotional. Use a spreadsheet and list three positive things that were accomplished during the day. Categorize the entire day into one of three emoticons – sad, indifferent, or happy. At the end of the year a total for each emoticon can be calculated. Now how the year progressed emotionally is measured.
  • The R is for Relational. Married, parent, single, and in a relationship are the basics, but also include social circles and friends. A closest person category is limited to one or two people. Close might be two to three, good friends may range from three to 12, and Facebook friends don’t count.
  • The M represents the Mental or intellectual side of life. Note all formal education, but informal as well. A great book, 7 Kinds of Smart, is a good reference to combat a problematic stereotype in society. A professor is considered smart while the maintenance person is at best labeled less intelligent. The fact is both are smart and necessary for the institution of higher education to function. The maintenance person is smart at fixing things. Both are good at problem solving. The smarts are about specialized intelligence. Everyone is gifted, the challenge is finding, developing, and applying that gift.
  • The S refers to Spiritual and is the basis for decision-making. Whether a person professes allegiance to a particular religion or none at all indicates some type of worldview. What brings meaning to life? Is there a purpose to existence? Is humanity the result of intelligent design or a random arrangement of molecules?
  • Finally, F signifies Financial and is just a matter of digging up records or paying someone to do it. Identifying how money is earned and where it is spent defines what is important to you.

In summary, complete this self-assessment without getting over analytical. The objective is not to solve life’s problems with this article. Keep answers simple and straight-forward. The important thing is beginning a process of honest self-evaluation. The journey to a better life starts with a decision to take the first step.

Circumstances do not dictate personal response, you do. Diligently assessing where you are before and after the pursuit of higher education shifts thinking accordingly to determine what can be done. Dream big. As Les Brown quotes, “Live full, die empty.”

Six Types of Human Values

Human beings need different things to live in this world. However, nothing in this world is available free of cost. Everything has a price and one has to pay the right price to get ones need satisfied. However, we value the things based on our needs and the needs depends on the basis of our value system.

First, there are basic necessities like food, water, air, shelter, and clothing without which survival of the body itself is not possible. However, once these necessities are satisfied, man moves to satisfy his higher needs like the social needs, security needs or the need of self-actualization.

However, every person does not follow the same path as his path would depend on the inherent values of the person. These inherent values are acquired by the man by virtue of his nature and also by his nurture. The effect of the family, society, nation and individual makes every person unique as he develops a unique set of values. These values decide the priority and lifestyle of the person. The values make the personality of the person and decide the growth of the individual, family, society, nation and the humanity.

1. Individualistic Values

The most inherent value of a person is individualistic which means valuing the self over anything else in the world. This is also the most natural value which is inherent in every animal of the world. The animals live for themselves without much bothering about the other animals. The only exception would be the mother animal which takes care of her child animal till the child grows up sufficiently to support itself.

The modern world has been moving more and more towards individualistic values where the interest of the individual is considered to be the most “right” and needs to be protected over everything else. The individualistic value support freedom as it believes that every person has the right to decide what is good for him.

Every child starts with individualistic values and he wants everything in the world for the self and wants everyone to serve him. When the need of the child is not satisfied, he cries and do everything to get the need satisfied.

2. Family Values

The human specie may be the most powerful specie in the earth but it is also true that human specie is also the weakest specie. A human child does not learn to even walk for one year. If the child of the man is allowed to survive of its own, it just can not survive. The support of family is must for the growth of every human child. It is for this reason that human specie over the year has invented the concept of family that lives like one unit and supports a new born child till it becomes strong enough to support itself.

The concept of family has given rise to the family value where a family is considered to be the basic unit of the society instead of the individual. The family has right and power to control the other member of the family. In a family system, the members of the family divide their work in a way that all members perform complementary functions rather than performing same functions. For example, father earns the livelihood and protects the family being the strongest member of the family. The mother takes care of the family by cooking food, cleaning house and rearing children. The children on their part get these benefits free of cost from their parents but they have the family obligation to provide the same benefits to their children. Thus the family ensures the continuity of the value and tradition of the family.

In the family system, the interest of each member of the family is protected through an unwritten law as love and trust alone govern the management of a family. The parents do not seek any personal benefit when they give something to their children. The children too recognize the contributions made by the parents in building their lives and they not only pass on the same benefits to their own children but also take care of their parents when they grow old.

The entire system of family value is maintained by tradition and trust.

However, when family values are strong, it results in the reduction of individual freedom and decline in the individual values. Every person has to think for the family first and the self as secondary. This often kills the creativity of the man as he is never free to think as an individual.

3. Professional Values

A society is made of not only families which are natural but also by origination which are artificially created to fulfill a specific requirement of the society. The government is one of the most important organizations which had been created to bring order in the society. The government is further divided into different departments like police, revenue, defense etc which are needed to keep the country united and protect it from external aggression. There are many other organizations which are run by private persons or bodies which produce goods and provide service to the people of the nation and the world.

Every person has to join an origination to earn his livelihood and to contribute to the society. These organizations are designed to serve a specialized function of the society and thus need a set of value to keep all members of the organization motivated and united.

Thus man develops a set of values due to his profession. The values of a police official are different than the values of a judge or a politician. Each profession has its own set of values which often contradict the values of another profession. Yet these values are necessary to keep the professionals united and deliver what is expected from them.

4. National Values

The world today is divided into a number of countries and each country is sovereign and independent. However, in recent years the countries have started behaving like family members as the independence is gradually being replaced by interdependence in the globalize economies. If China is emerging as the manufacturing hub of the world, India has become the outsourcing and out-shoring hub of the world from where the different services are being provided to the world. Arab world is producing oil for the world and USA has taken the leadership role in creation of the knowledge and the Information Technology for the world. Each country is gradually becoming specialist in some specific task and getting the rest of the requirements fulfilled from the other countries of the world.

Thus, just like individuals and families have to compete with and complement each other for their survival in a society, each nation has to compete with and complement with the other countries of the world. In order to make the nation stronger, certain types of values need to be cultivated in their citizen which makes the country not made of millions or billions of individuals or families but like one family.

By virtue of independence, every country develops certain values which keep on evolving with time. The values of a nation represent its tradition, history and experiences of its people since its creation. The values of India and China are many thousands of years old while the values of the newly created nations like USA, Israel, Australia, and Pakistan are quite new.

The national values are often codified in their laws that seek to grant equality and justice to all its citizens. There, is wide diversity in these laws as the requirement of each country is different. The violation of national values is treated criminal acts which are punished by the State. Thus the countries with strong national values enforce their laws very severely as they keep the interest of the country over the interest of the individual.

5. Moral Values

While the legal values of a country or society is documented and enforced, these are insufficient for the smooth functioning of the state. The ideal state is one where the State does not have to enforce any law as the citizens voluntarily follow the laws of the land. However, this rarely happens since all the State laws are drafted by the people who are in power or those who have influence on powerful people. These powerful people ensure that laws are drafted in their favour of few rather than in the favour of the masses. Thus over a period of time, the enforcement of laws creates a class of people who are extremely powerful and rich while the majority population live the life of haplessness and poverty.

However, the disparity and injustice created by law is largely reduced due to the prevalence of the moral values in the society which need not to be codified in the statute books. Yet the moral values are passed on from one generation to another by tradition. For example, the sanctity of the institution of marriage in India has kept the divorce rate to the minimum despite having the provision of divorce in the law books like any other western country. The moral laws are enforced jointly by the society. As every man desires to be loved and respected by the society, the moral values are often more powerful to keep the man on the right path than the legal enforcement.

6. Spiritual Values

All values adopted by men create exclusivity in human beings as these values are different for every society and indeed for every man. The values are thus the source of conflicts in the world as every person or nation believes strongly in their values as right. Yet all these values are non-permanent and transient which changes with time and space. The values of the present generation are not same as the value of the previous generation.

Yet there is some ingredient in all values that never changes. It has remained same in long years of human evolution. These values are eternal as they never change. Therefore, often people call such values as spiritual or divine as it never dies and its origin too is not known.

These are the spiritual values.

The spiritual values are often attributed to God and called divine. The spiritual values include love, compassion, justice, truth etc. It is the nature of the man to imbibe these values irrespective of his religion, race, culture or nationality. These values are so universal that all human beings seem to understand it without being taught.

The spiritual values unite all human beings on this world. It is due to these spiritual values that we want justice and can not see injustice in this world. The feelings of love and compassion cut across all barriers of religion, race and nationalities. The spiritual values can not be eliminated from man and these are universal.

The Conflict of Values

No person can have only one set of values and all human beings are governed by the combination of all values. However, the dominating value in every person is different which arises due to the birth in a particular family, culture, religion or nationality. The values also change with the age of the person as the same person transforms from individual to a family man. When a person grows up and earns his living, he has to work in some profession where his professional values are developed. The national values too get ingrained in the person due to the common value shared by the citizens. However, as the men grow older, they tend to become spiritual and develop spiritual values. Thus all six values are always prevalent in every society that keeps the society moving and united.